1. Bennett, William. “Stronger Families, Stronger Societies.” Editorial. New York Times. N.p., 24 Apr. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
  2. President Barrack Obama , The White House Blog, “President Obama Promotes Responsible Fatherhood: ‘No Excuses,’”  Whitehouse.gov. N.p., 21 June 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States 1980-92,” and assorted National Monthly Vital Statistics Reports.
  4. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 66, No. 1, p. 2, January 5, 2017.
  5. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2015. Table S0901. Characteristics of Children. Accessed via the American FactFinder website: http://factfinder2.census.gov.
  6. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Census of the Population 1960, 1970, U.S. Department of Commerce.
  7. Advance Data Births 1999, Bureau of Health Statistics, Research and Evaluations, Bureau of Family and Community Health, MA Department of Health.
  8. Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Registry of Vital Records and Statistics. (March 2017). Massachusetts Births 2015, Table 1. Boston, MA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public Health.
  9. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Census of the Population 1960, 1970, U.S. Department of Commerce.
  10. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2015. Table S0901.  Characteristics of Children in Massachusetts. Accessed via the American FactFinder website: http://factfinder2.census.gov.
  11. Ibid.
  12. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2011-2015. Table S0901. Characteristics of Children in Massachusetts and Its 10 Largest Cities. Accessed via the American FactFinder website: http://factfinder2.census.gov.
  13. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2008-2010. Percentage of teens aged 15-17 who lived with both married biological parents throughout childhood calculated for each Super PUMA in Massachusetts from ACS public use microdata file by Nicholas Zill and Philip Fletcher, 2012.
  14. Massachusetts Family Institute. (2001). The Crisis of Family Decline in Massachusetts. 2001 Annual Report on Massachusetts Families. Newton Upper Falls, MA. www.mafamily.org.
  15. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2015. Table S0901. Characteristics of Children. Accessed via the American FactFinder website: http://factfinder2.census.gov.
  16. Ibid.
  17. National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), public use microdata files from 2011-2012 surveys. Analyzed by Nicholas Zill, May 2014
  18. Ibid.
  19. U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/threshld/.  Accessed May 2017.
  20. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  21. ACS 2015, op. cit. Table S0901 for Massachusetts. Characteristics of Children.
  22. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (November 2013). Current Population Survey (CPS), 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Table C3. Living Arrangements of Children Under 18 Years and Marital Status of Parents, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin and Selected Characteristics of the Child for All Children: 2013.
  23. ACS 2011-2015, op. cit. Table S0901. Characteristics of Childrin in Massachusetts and Its 52 Largest Cities, calculated by Andrew Beckwith, May 2017\
  24. ACS 2011-2015, op. cit. Table S0901. Characteristics of Children in Massachusetts and Its 10 Largest Cities.
  25. Nicholas Zill & Christine W. Nord. (1994). Running in Place: How American Families are Faring in a Changing Economy and an Individualistic Society. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
  26. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  27. Ibid.
  28. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2016). Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Table C3. Living Arrangements of Children Under 18 Years and Marital Status of Parents, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin and Selected Characteristics of the Child for All Children: 2016.
  29. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2016). Current Population Survey, April 2014. Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support: 2013. Series P60-255 Detailed Tables.
  30. The five studies made use of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), the High School and Beyond Study (HSB) conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and two cohorts of the National Survey of Families and Households.  See McLanahan, Sara. “Father Absence and the Welfare of Children.” MacArthur Research Network on The Family and The Economy Working Paper. http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/macarthur/working%20papers/wp-mclanahan2.htm  (1999), Figure 1 for further details about these studies and analytic findings reported here. Also,  Nan Astone & Sara McLanahan. (1991). “Family structure, parental practices, and high school completion,” American Sociological Review, Vol. 56: Pp. 309-320, & (1994). “Family structure, residential mobility and school dropout: A research note,” Demography, 31(4): Pp. 575-584. Nicholas Zill, “Family Change and Student Achievement: What We Have Learned, What It Means for Schools,” in Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes, eds. Alan Booth and Judith F. Dunn (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996): pp. 139-184.
  31. Zill (1996), op. cit., pp. 139-184.
  32. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  33. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016 Graduation Report (DISTRICT) for All Students, Four-Year Graduation Rate. http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/state_report/gradrates.aspx
  34. Ibid.
  35. Zill & Nord (1994), op. cit., pp. 44-54, Tables III-1, III-2, & III-3, pp. 99-101. Zill (1996). op. cit.
  36. Zill (1996), op cit., Tables III-1, III-2, & III-3, pp. 99-101.
  37. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit. Also, Zill (1996), op. cit., Figure 10.3.
  38. Zill & Nord (1994), op. cit., Table III-6. Also, Zill (1996), op. cit., Figure 10.3.
  39. McLanahan, Sara. “Father Absence and the Welfare of Children.” MacArthur Research Network on The Family and The Economy Working Paper. http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/macarthur/working%20papers/wp-mclanahan2.htm  (1999), Figure 2. Also, Wilcox, Bradford W., “The Difference Fathers Make for College Graduation,” Institute for Family Studies Newsletter, April 23, 2014.
  40. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015). Employment Projections: Earnings and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment, updated April 2, 2015. Accessed via website: www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm.
  41. Ibid.; ACS 2015, op. cit., Table S0901 for Massachusetts. Characteristics of Children.
  42. C. J. Mumola. & J. C. Karberg (2006, revised 2007). Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004. BJS Special Report NCJ 213530, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Also, Bureau of Justice Statistics (1994a). Women in Prison (Special Report NCJ-145321). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. (1994b). Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1993. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Cynthia C. Harper & Sara S. McLanahan, “Father Absence and Youth Incarceration,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, Vol. 14, No. 3, (2004), pp. 369-397.
  45. Ibid.
  46. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit. Also, Matthew Bramlett & Laura Radel. (2014). Adverse Family Experiences among Children in Non-parental Care, 2011–2012. National Health Statistics Reports No. 74.
  47. Jennifer L. Truman & Erica L. Smith. (2012). Prevalence of Violent Crime among Households with Children, 1993-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report NCJ 238799, September 2012.
  48. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  49. McLanahan (1999), op. cit., Figure 4. Also, Sara McLanahan, “Family structure and the reproduction of poverty,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 90 (January, 1985), Pp. 873-901; & “Family Structure and Dependency: Early Transitions to Female Household Headship,” Demography, (February, 1988) Vol. 25, Pp. 1-16.
  50. McLanahan (1999), op. cit., Table 1.
  51. Massachusetts Births 2015, op. cit., Table 5b.
  52. Scafaldi, Benjamin, ed. The Taxpayer Costs of Divorce and Unwed Childbearing, Institute for American Values, 2008, p. 5
  53. Ibid., Table A.5, p. 38.
  54. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  55. Calculated from food stamp/SNAP participation information available in 2013 American Community Survey, Massachusetts state file, and state-level payment information available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligibility and
    http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap
  56. NSCH 2011-2012, op. cit.
  57. Calculated from Medicaid participation information available in 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health, Massachusetts state file, and state-level Medicaid payment information available at:
    http://kff.org/medicaid/state-indicator/medicaid-payments-per-enrollee/
  58. ACS 2011-2015, op. cit., Table S0901. Characteristics of Children in Massachusetts and Its 10 Largest Cities.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Scafaldi, op. cit., Table A.5, p. 38.
  61. Larry Bumpass. (1990). “What’s Happening to the Family?” Demography, 27(4), pp. 483-498.  Larry Bumpass & James Sweet. (1989). “Children’s Experience in Single Parent Families: Implications of Cohabitation and Marital Transitions.” Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, Pp. 256-260.  Andrew J. Cherlin. (1981, 1992). Marriage, divorce, remarriage (revised and enlarged edition); (2009). The Marriage-go-round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today; Diana B. Elliott, Kristy Krivickas, Matthew W. Brault, Rose M. Kreider. (2012). Historical marriage trends from 1890-2010. U.S. Bureau of the Census SEHSD Working Paper Number 2012-12;  Sara McLanahan. (2004). Diverging destinies (op. cit.).  David Popenoe. (1988). Disturbing the nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies. Nicholas Zill & Christine W. Nord. (1994). Running in place: How American families are faring in a changing economy and an individualistic society.
  62. U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012.  Table 133. Marriages and divorces: Number and rate by state: 1990 to 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.  U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. (2017). Marriage rates by State: 1990, 1995, and 1999-2015.  Accessed via CDC website: www.cdc.gov.
    U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. (1981). Annual Summary of Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces: United States, 1980.  Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Volume 29, Number 13. September 17, 1981.
  63. Tavia Simmons & Jane Lawler Dye. (2004). “What Has Happened to Median Age at First Marriage Data?” Presentation at Annual Meeting of American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA: August 14-17. Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed via Census Bureau website: www.census.gov.
  64. U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, 2008, 2015. Table B12002. Sex by Marital Status for Massachusetts, 2006-2008 & 2010-2015.  Accessed via the American FactFinder website: http://factfinder2.census.gov.
  65. Bumpass (1990), op. cit.; Bumpass & Sweet (1989), op. cit.;  Cherlin (1981, 1992), op. cit.; Elliott, Krivickas, Brault, & Kreider (2012), op. cit.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census SEHSD Working Paper Number 2012-12;   McLanahan. (2004), op. cit.;  Popenoe (1988), op. cit. Zill & Nord (1994), op. cit.
  66. Advance Data Births 1999, Bureau of Health Statistics, Research and Evaluations, Bureau of Family and Community Health, MA Department of Health.;  Massachusetts Births 2015, op. cit., Table 1.
  67. Ibid., Table 10.
  68. Cherlin (1981, 1992), op. cit., pp. 20-27.; Zill & Nord (1994), op. cit.. pp. 6-8.;  Bumpass (1990), op. cit., pp. 483-498.
  69. U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012.  Table 133. Marriages and divorces: Number and rate by state: 1990 to 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.
    U. S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare, Public Health Service. (1978). Vital Statistics of the United States: 1975. Vol. III – Marriage and Divorce. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
    U. S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare, Public Health Service. (1968a). Vital Statistics of the United States: 1965. Vol. III – Marriage and Divorce. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics.
    U. S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare, Public Health Service. (1968b). Vital Statistics Rates in the United States: 1940-1960. By Robert D. Grove &  Alice M. Hetzel. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics.
    U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. (2017). Divorce rates by State: 1990, 1995, and 1999-2015.  Accessed via CDC website: www.cdc.gov.
  70. Divorce ratio trend for Massachusetts calculated by Nicholas Zill from above sources, May 2014, updated by Andrew Beckwith, March 2017.
  71. Cherlin (1981, 1992), op cit., pp. 24